Wireless communication refers to the transfer of data over a long distance without the need for wires, cables, or other electrical conductors.
Wireless communication is a broad term that encompasses all procedures and ways of connecting and communicating between two or more devices via wireless communication technologies and devices employing a wireless signal.
Wireless communication is one of the most rapidly evolving and dynamic technology areas in communication. Wireless communication sends data from one location to another without wires, cables, or another physical medium.
Via general, information is conveyed from a transmitter to a receiver across a short distance in a communication system. The transmitter and receiver can be positioned anywhere between a few meters (like a TV remote control) and a few thousand kilometers away using Wireless Communication (Satellite Communication).
1. Types of Networks Used in Today’s World
LAN (Local Area Network) (PAN)
A PAN is the simplest and most basic network, consisting of a wireless modem, one or more computers, phones, printers, tablets, and other devices that revolve around one person in one building. These networks are commonly found in tiny offices or homes, and they are controlled by a single person or organization using a single device.
The Local Area Network (LAN)
We’re likely you’ve heard of these types of networks before — LANs are one of the most commonly mentioned networks, as well as one of the most prevalent, unique, and basic forms of networks. LANs allow groups of computers and low-voltage devices to share information and resources over small distances (inside a building or between two or three buildings near each other). LANs are often managed and maintained by businesses.
Local Area Network (WLAN)
WLANs, which function similarly to a LAN, use wireless network technology such as Wi-Fi. These networks, commonly used in the same applications as LANs, do not require devices to connect to the network using physical wires.
Area Network on Campus (CAN)
These networks are often found in colleges, big K-12 school districts, or small enterprises and are larger than LANs but smaller than metropolitan networks (MANs, detailed below). They can be dispersed among several buildings that are very close to one another, allowing users to share resources.
Network of Metropolitan Areas (MAN)
These networks are larger than LANs but smaller than WANs, and they combine features from both networks. MANs cover a large geographic area (typically a town or city, but sometimes a campus). A single person or a firm is in charge of ownership and maintenance (a local council, a large company, etc.).
Wide Area Network (WAN) (WAN)
A WAN, slightly more complicated than a LAN, links computers over longer physical distances. This enables computers and low-voltage devices to communicate over a wide network, even if they are thousands of miles distant.
Network of Storage Areas (SAN)
These networks do not rely on a LAN or WAN because they are specialized high-speed networks connecting pooled storage devices to numerous servers. Instead, they divert storage resources away from the network and into their high-speed network. As a result, SANs can be accessed the same way that a server-attached drive can. Converged, virtual, and unified storage-area networks are examples of storage-area networks.
2. Advantages of Wireless Communication
Wireless Communication Technology, Wireless Networking, and Wireless Systems have various advantages over wired communication, including cost, mobility, ease of installation, and reliability.
Wireless communication eliminates the cost of establishing wires, cables, and other infrastructure, lowering the overall cost of the system when compared to wired communication. For example, installing a wired network in a building, digging into the ground to lay cables, and connecting those wires over streets is complex, expensive, and time-consuming.
As previously said, the real benefit of a wireless communication system is mobility. It allows you to walk about while being connected to the network.
Installation Procedural Ease
The technology and architecture of a wireless communication network are very simple to set up and deploy because there are no cables to deal with. In addition, setting up a wireless system, such as a Wi-Fi network, takes much less time than setting up a full cabled network.
Because wireless communication does not employ cables or wires, there is no risk of communication failure due to cable damage, which could be caused by environmental factors, cable splices, or natural deterioration of metallic conductors.
Recovering From a Disaster
The loss of communication infrastructure in a wireless communication system can be low in the event of an accident caused by fire, floods, or other disasters.
3. Wireless Communication Across Short Distances
There are two types of wireless communication technologies: short-range and long-range. Short-range wireless communication uses radio waves to transmit and receive information at a limited distance. It is most commonly used in smartphones, connecting to a camera or microphone. Other types of short-range communication use low-power digital radio communications, such as Zigbee. Both types of wireless communication systems can cover large areas using very little power.
Short-range wireless communications systems characterize various scenarios, technology, and needs. Short-range communications provide wireless connectivity within a small area of contact.
The following are the different types of short-range wireless communication: Bluetooth \Wi-Fi \ZigBee \UWB \IR.
Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology standard for transmitting data over short distances between fixed and mobile devices. It builds personal area networks using UHF radio waves in the industrial, scientific, and medical radio bands, ranging from 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz (PANs). Another notable low-range wireless communication method is Bluetooth. It has a transmission range of 10 meters and can transmit data, voice, and audio. Bluetooth devices are found in almost all mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. Wireless Bluetooth receivers, audio equipment, cameras, and other devices can all be attached to them.
Principle of operation: The only modulation system available was Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK). Since the release of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, compatible devices can also use /4-DQPSK and 8-DPSK modulation. Devices that use GFSK are considered in basic rate (BR) mode, which allows for an instantaneous bit rate of 1 Mbit/s. The terms Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) refer to the /4-DPSK and 8-DPSK systems, which provide 2 and 3 Mbit/s, respectively.
Implementation: Bluetooth uses frequencies ranging from 2.402 to 2.480 GHz, or 2.400 to 2.4835 GHz, with guard bands of 2 MHz at the bottom and 3.5 MHz at the top. In the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) short-range radio frequency spectrum, this is internationally unlicensed (but not uncontrolled). Bluetooth employs a frequency-hopping spread spectrum wireless technology. Bluetooth separates data into packets and sends each packet out on 79 different Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a 1 MHz bandwidth. With adaptive frequency-hopping (AFH) enabled, it typically achieves 1600 hops per second. Bluetooth Low Energy has a channel spacing of 2 MHz, allowing 40 channels.
LLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is an internet-connected wireless service. WLAN allows various devices, such as laptops and smartphones, to connect to an access point (such as a Wi-Fi Router) and access the internet. Wi-Fi is a commonly utilized wireless network typically used for internet access (but sometimes for data transfer within the Local Area Network). It’s tough to picture a world without Wi-Fi in today’s world.
Principles of operation: Wi-Fi stations exchange data packets, which are discrete blocks of data transferred and delivered over radio. Wi-Fi is powered by carrier waves that are modulated and demodulated. DOSS on a single carrier is used by 802.11b, whereas 802.11a, Wi-Fi 4, 5, and 6 employ several carriers on slightly different frequencies inside the channel.
Implementation: For Wi-Fi communications, the 802.11 standard specifies various radio frequency bands: 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 5.9 GHz, and 60 GHz. Each range is broken down into several channels. Allowable channels allowed users, and national rules govern maximum power levels within these frequency ranges. ISM band ranges are also often used.
Zigbee is a set of high-level communication protocols based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It’s used to make PANs with small, low-power digital radios, such as home automation and data collection from medical devices. It can also be used for small-scale tasks that require a wireless connection. To summarize, Zigbee is a low-power, low-data-rate wireless network that operates nearby (i.e., personal area).
Zigbee is designed to be easier to use and less expensive than other wireless PANs (WPANs) like Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Examples of applications are:
- Wireless light switches.
- Home energy monitors.
- Traffic control systems.
- Other equipment requires short-range low-rate wireless data transfer.
Principle of operation: The unlicensed 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (global), 902 to 928 MHz (Americas and Australia), and 868 to 868.6 MHz (Europe) ISM bands are covered by this standard. In the 2.4 GHz spectrum, sixteen channels are assigned, each spaced 5 MHz apart and using just 2 MHz of bandwidth. Direct-sequence spread spectrum coding is used on the radios. The digital stream manages the modulator. In the 868 and 915 MHz bands, BPSK is utilized, while in the 2.4 GHz range, OQPSK (two bits per symbol) is used.
Implementation: In the 2.4 GHz range, the raw over-the-air data rate is 250 Kbit/s per channel, 40 Kbit/s in the 915 MHz band, and 20 Kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. The transmission distance for 2.4 GHz indoor applications is 10–20 m. This range is determined by the materials used, the number of walls in the path, and the available power. The radios’ output power ranges from 0 to 20 dBm (1–100 mW).
Ultra-wideband (also known as UWB) is a radio technology that allows for short-range, high-bandwidth communications over a vast chunk of the radio spectrum while using very little energy. In non-cooperative radar imaging, UWB has long been used. Sensor data collecting, precision locating, and tracking are among the most current applications. In addition, UWB support has begun to surface in high-end smartphones as of September 2019.
Unlike spread spectrum, UWB transmits traditional narrow-band and carrier wave transmission in the same frequency band.
Implementation: Ultra-wideband (UWB) was previously known as pulse radio. Still, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) now define it as an antenna transmission whose emitted signal bandwidth exceeds the lesser of 500 MHz or 20% of the arithmetic center frequency.
Short-range communication between computer peripherals and personal digital assistants also uses infrared data transmission. The Infrared Data Association, or IrDA, publishes standards that these devices must follow. Infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) generate infrared radiation focused on a narrow beam by a plastic lens in remote controls and IrDA devices.
4. Wireless Signal Range Affecting Factors
The range is defined as the maximum distance over which two antennas may communicate in a wireless network. Range, on the other hand, isn’t only about distance. Here are a few things to think about:
- The range is affected by obstacles, topography, and radiophysics.
- Another concern is antenna design, which includes frequency ranges and impedance.
- Another crucial factor is noise. It’s difficult to pick out a radio signal in surroundings with a lot of radio noise, much like it’s difficult to hear someone at a busy party.
- There are ten main variables and elements that can affect how successfully the devices in your network interact.
A wireless link’s performance is determined by pure physics, as modified by practical circumstances. Therefore, range, transmit power, antenna gains (if any), frequency or wavelength, and receiver sensitivity are significant aspects to consider when designing a short-range wireless product or system.
If all other conditions are equal, lower frequencies increase the range. This range is strictly a matter of physics. A signal at 900 MHz will travel further than one at 2.4 GHz. The range of a 60-GHz transmission is significantly smaller than that of a 5-GHz signal.
Lower data rates will help broaden the range and consistency of a set of variables. In addition, noise and interference are less of a problem with lower data speeds. For the best results, utilize the lowest data rate feasible.