What Is FCC?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is a federal regulatory organization that is accountable to Congress directly. The Communications Act of 1934 tasked it with regulating interstate and international radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable communications. Its authority extends to all 50 states and territories, as well as the District of Columbia and the United States possessions. The FCC is the body that oversees satellites. It regulates the quality of communication signals between earth stations and other countries. It also controls the use of commercially-available space technology. The FCC has a long history of regulating the use of satellites. Since the first commercial satellites were launched in 1957, the United States has benefited from the advancement of satellite communication. Hundreds of thousands of satellites orbit the Earth. The satellites send information from antennas on Earth.
Except for completing an unexpired term, the FCC is led by five commissioners selected by the President and confirmed by the Senate for five-year terms. The President appoints a chairperson from among the commissioners. The chairman, as the Commission’s top executive officer, delegated managerial and administrative responsibilities to the Managing Director. Other functions are entrusted to staff units and bureaus, as well as commissioners’ committees. The commissioners hold open and closed agenda sessions as well as extraordinary meetings on a regular basis. They can also act between meetings through “circulation,” which is a method in which a document is sent to each commissioner individually for review and formal action.
The United States has fifteen separate executive departments that make up the federal government. Each one has its own purpose and has a specific role. For instance, the Labor Department develops regulations for the United States’ direct broadcast satellite service, while the International Bureau coordinates orbital assignments and frequency allocation for satellites. The International Bureau also ensures that the FCC adheres to international agreements. The International Bureau and the Media Division each oversee the licensing and enforcement of the various frequencies and policies.
The FCC is the agency that regulates the United States’ terrestrial communications system, including the use of satellites. It is responsible for enacting rules for the use of space-based communications. Unlike the EOP, the cabinet department also oversees many agencies and administrators throughout the government. In addition, it is the largest government employer and has the most employees. Each agency has its own set of responsibilities and mandates. The EOP and the cabinet department are similar to the EOP and cabinet. The Cabinet Department regulates several government agencies and administrative departments. These entities would most likely regulate satellites used for worldwide communications. Aside from their roles, they are the most important agency in the government. Its staff is the most diverse in the world. In addition, the government is also responsible for a variety of other technologies.
What Does FCC Do?
The FCC is similar to independent agencies and the cabinet department. These agencies are responsible for overseeing the activities of many government entities. The President’s cabinet, the Cabinet Department, and the EOP are all under the jurisdiction of this agency. The FCC is the biggest employer in the government, employing the most people and carrying out specific duties. A satellite uses its solar panels to collect sunlight to power its radio and television services. A battery onboard the satellite charges this battery.
The FCC regulates the use of satellites for worldwide communication. The agency overseeing these satellites is the President’s cabinet. The office of engineering and technology advises the FCC on technical matters, organizes the Technical Advisory Council, and supervises equipment authorizations for electromagnetic energy from nine kHz to 300 GHz. The President’s cabinet is also the largest employer in the government.
Today, the FCC has thousands of satellites revolving around the Earth. Currently, a satellite can transmit voice, video, and data to Earth. The number of satellites is growing rapidly, with thousands of satellites now in orbit. Some have been developed over the past two decades. For example, the Early Bird satellite was only equipped with one transponder, but today’s Boeing 702 series of satellites have over 100 transponders and 16 channels. The FCC is now responsible for providing the Internet and delivering internet content.
What Does FCC Regulate?
Interstate and international communications are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission via cable, radio, television, satellite, and wire. The Commission’s purpose is to enhance connection while also ensuring a stable and competitive market.
How Do Satellites Work?
A satellite is essentially a self-contained communications device that can receive messages from Earth and retransmit them using a transponder—a radio signal receiver and transmitter that is incorporated into the satellite. For its expected operational life of up to 20 years, a satellite must resist the shock of being driven up to an orbital velocity of 28,100 kilometers (17,500 miles) per hour during launch, as well as a hostile space environment where it can be exposed to radiation and high temperatures. Furthermore, satellites must be light because the cost of launching a satellite depends on its weight. Satellites must be tiny, lightweight, and resilient in order to meet these challenges.
A satellite can operate for global communications in several ways. It can be stationary, or it can rotate. It may be moving in and out of orbit. The frequency of the signal will change as it flies through the air. A satellite may change frequencies if it is in the middle of a hurricane or other natural disaster. Its frequency will not be affected by weather conditions or solar flares.
What Are The Main Components of Satellites?
The communications system, which includes the antennas and transponders that receive and retransmit signals; the power system, which includes the solar panels that provide power; and the propulsion system, which includes the rockets that propel the satellite, are the three main components of a satellite. To arrive at the right orbital location and make periodic modifications to that position, a satellite has its own propulsion engine. Because of the gravitational influence of the Moon and Sun, a satellite in geostationary orbit might wander up to a degree from its original location every year, from north to south or east to west. The thrusters on a satellite are used to make minor modifications to its position. Satellites communicate by sending signals to Earth’s antennas via radio waves. These signals are subsequently captured by the antennas, which process the data they contain.
A satellite in orbit must constantly operate for the duration of its life. To run its electronic systems and communications payload, it requires internal power. Sunlight is the primary source of energy, which is captured by the satellite’s solar panels. When the Sun is obscured by Earth, a satellite has batteries on board to supply power. When there is sunlight, the extra electricity created by the solar panels is used to recharge the batteries.
Satellites operate in severe temperatures ranging from 150 degrees Celsius (238 degrees Fahrenheit) to 150 degrees Celsius (300 degrees Fahrenheit) and may be exposed to radiation in space. Aluminum and other radiation-resistant materials are used to shield satellite components that may be subjected to radiation. The thermal system of a satellite protects its sensitive electrical and mechanical components and keeps them at their optimal operating temperature to ensure continuous operation. The thermal system of a satellite also protects sensitive satellite components from significant temperature variations by activating cooling mechanisms when the temperature rises too high or heating systems when the temperature falls too low.
Purpose of Satellite in Worldwide Communication
Satellites are used for worldwide communication for these purposes. The objective of communications satellites is to carry signals around the Earth’s arc, allowing communication between geographically distant locations. A wide spectrum of radio and microwave frequencies is used by communications satellites. International organizations have standards governing the frequency ranges or “bands” specific organizations are allowed to utilize in order to avoid signal interference. The use of these bands reduces the danger of signal interference.
The first is to relay television signals from one corner of Earth to another. The second stage is called downlink and involves bounced signals back to Earth from satellites in space. A communications satellite must be continuously operated throughout its lifetime to function. As a result, it needs an internal power source. It also has batteries on board to provide backup. The downlink refers to communication from a satellite to the ground, whereas the uplink refers to communication from the ground to a satellite. The communication is called two-way when an uplink is received by the spacecraft at the same time that a downlink is received by Earth. This connection is referred to as upload if just an uplink is taking place. When there is only a downlink, the communication is referred to as one-way.
In all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and US territories, the Federal Communications Commission governs interstate and international radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable communications. The Federal Communications Commission is an independent United States government body overseen by Congress that is responsible for implementing and enforcing America’s communications laws and regulations.